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6000             Neolithic settlements in Baluchistan

4000-3000       Settlements in the Indus valley

3000-1500       Broad period of Indus civilisation

3000-2500       Beginning/Early phase of Indus civilisation

2700             Date of Indus seals found at Kish in Mesopotamia

2500-1750       Mature phase of Indus civilisation; civilisation of the great cities in  the Indus valley (Mohenjodaro and Harappa), in the Punjab   (Kalibangan) and Gujarat (Lothal).

1750-1500        Later phase/Decline of Indus civilisation; Immigration of the Vedic Aryans

1500-1000       Early/Rig Vedic Period; Settlement of the Aryans in the Punjab and the western Ganga-Yamuna Doab

1000             Iron in India

1000-600         Later Vedic Period; Settlement of the Aryans in the central and eastern Gangetic plains; emergence of janapadas or territorial kingdoms; Painted Grey Ware (PGW) in the areas of Aryan  settlement

817               Traditional date of the birth of Parsvanatha, the 23rd tirthankara

600              Beginning of Second Urbanisation in India (eastern Gangetic valley); Rise of 16 mahajanapadas

563-483          Hitherto accepted date of Buddha

542-413          Haryankas of Magadha

540-468          Hitherto accepted date of Mahavira

518              Gandhara and Sind satrapies of the Persian empire; Behistun inscription of Darius

413 364          Sisunagas of Magadha

364 321          Nandas of Magadha

327-325          Alexander’s Invasion of India

326              Battle of Hydaspes (Jhelum) and defeat of Porus (Purushottam) bAlexander

321-184          Maurya Empire

305-303          Chandragupta Maurya’s war with Seleucus Nikator

272-268          War of succession between Asoka and his brothers

268-232          Asoka’s reign

260              Asoka’s conquest of Kalinga

257              Asoka’s conversion to Buddhism by Upagupta

250              Third Buddhist council at Pataliputra; Buddhist missions in South Asia and the Hellenistic World

248              Independence of the Greeks in Bactria

232-184          Later Mauryas

184-75           Sungas (Pushyamitra-founder, Devabhumi-last Sunga)

182              Foundation of the Indo-Greek empire by Demetrius

166-150          Menander, the most important of the Indo-Greeks

141              Sakas conquer Bactria

94                Maues, Saka king in north-western India

75-28             Kanvas (Vasudeva-founder, Suserman-last Kanva)

58                Beginning of Vikrama samvat (era) by Vikramaditya of Ujjain;Azes I, the second Saka ruler in north-western India

50                Emergence of Satavahanas in Deccan;King Kharavela of Kalinga (Hathigumpha inscription)

2                 Despatch of Buddhist missionaries from the Bactrian court to the Chinese emperor


20-46             Gondophernes, the greatest Indo-Parthian king in Taxila; St Thomas in India

45                Invasion of north-western India by the Yuechis under Kujula Kadphises, who united the Yuechi tribes and established the Kushan emoire

46                Discovery of monsoon winds by Hippalus, a Greek sailor

64                Chinese emperor Mingti sent agents to India for Buddhist texts

66                Arrival of Indian Buddhist monks, Kasyapa Matanga and Gobharana, in China

77                Pliny’s Natural History

78                Commencement of the Saka era by Kanishka

78-100           Reign of Kanishka; Heyday of the Kushana empire

80-128           Resurgence of Satavahanas under Gautamiputra Satakarni and Vasishtiputra Pulamayi

130-150          Rudradaman I, the greatest Sakasatrap in western India

226              Establishment of Sassanian dynasty in Persia

250              Disintegration of the Satavahana kingdom

320              Beginning of Gupta era by Chandra-gupta !

320-335          Reign of Chandragupta I

335–375          Reign of Samudragupta, known as Indian Napoleon for his military conquests

360              Ceylonese embassy to Samudra gupta’s court

375-413          Reign of Chandragupta II, westward expansion of the Guptas and peak of Sanskrit literature

405-411          Fahien in India

413-455          Reign of Kumaragupta 1; foundation of the Nalanda University

455-467          Reign of Skandagupta; first attack of the Hunas

467-540          Decline of the Gupta dynasty

500-527          Rule of the Hunas over north India under Toramana and Mihirakula

527               Defeat of Mihirakula by Yasodharman

543–755           Chalukyas of Badami (Early Chaluk-yas)

547               Indikopleustes of Kosmas (Indicopleustes of Cosmas)

560-903          Great Pallavas of Kanchipuram

606-647          Harshavardhana’s reign

622               Commencement of hijra (Muslim) era

625               The embassy of Pulakesin II to the Persian king, Khusrau II

630              Harsha’s clash with Pulakesin II on the banks of the Narmada

630-643          Hiuen Tsang in India

630-1070         Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi

634              Aihole inscription of Pulakesin II

642              Conquest of Badami by Narasimhavarman I of Kanchi

643               Harsha’s quinquennial assembly at Prayag

648               Bhaskaravarman (king of Kamarupa) helped Wang Hiuen Tse (Chinese ambassador) in restoring the successor of Harsha on  the throne of Kanauj

675-685          Itsing at Nalanda University

700-728          Reign of Narasimhavarman II of Kanchi; peak of prosperity and cultural activities

712              Arab conquest of Sind

743-789          Santarakshita and Padmasambhava (Buddhist monks) in Tibet.

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